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20/Jun/2022

Rabeprazole sodium

Overview:

Rabeprazole is used to treat the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a condition in which backward passage of acid from the stomach induces heartburn and possible damage to the esophagus. It reduces the quantity of acid produced in the stomach. In adults and children 12 years of age and older, it is also used to reduce the risk of developing Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (too much acid production) and ulcers. Also, Rabeprazole oral tablet may interfere with any drugs, vitamins, or herbal supplements you are taking. When a chemical changes the way a drug functions, this is referred to as an interaction. This can be dangerous or prevent the medicine from working properly.

 

Primary Characteristics:

Rabeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and a powerful inhibitor of stomach acidity that is used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcer disease. Rabeprazole treatment is associated with a low risk of temporary and asymptomatic serum aminotransferase increases and is a rare cause of clinically visible liver damage.

 

Indication:

For the treatment of acid-reflux disorders (GERD), peptic ulcer disease, H. pylori eradication, and prevention of gastrointestinal bleeds with NSAID use.

 

Pharmacodynamics:

Rabeprazole inhibits the formation of stomach acid. It alleviates symptoms and protects the esophagus and stomach in individuals suffering from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or ulcers. It is also beneficial in disorders characterized by excessive stomach acid production, such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The medicine may also be taken in conjunction with antibiotics to eliminate microorganisms linked to certain ulcer symptoms.

 

Pharmacokinetics:

Rabeprazole’s pharmacokinetics are distinguished by its high and stable bioavailability, dosage proportionality, significant hepatic metabolism, and largely urine excretion of these metabolites. Furthermore, rabeprazole does not accumulate with repeated administration. It does not accumulate with repeated dosage, and its pharmacokinetic profile is unaffected by meal or antacid consumption. These findings are consistent with previous findings for some, but not all, proton pump inhibitors. Lansoprazole pharmacokinetics appear unchanged by multiple-dose dosing.

 

Mechanism of Action:

Rabeprazole is an antisecretory drug (substituted Benz imidazole proton-pump inhibitor) that does not affect gastric acid secretion by blocking the gastric H+/ATPase (hydrogen-potassium adenosine triphosphates) at the secretory membrane of the gastric parietal cell. Rabeprazole has been classified as a gastric proton-pump inhibitor since this enzyme is thought to be the acid (proton) pump within the parietal cell. Rabeprazole inhibits the last stage of stomach acid production. Rabeprazole is protonated, accumulates, and is converted to an active sulfonamide in gastric parietal cells. Rabeprazole is chemically activated at pH 1.2 and has a half-life of 78 seconds when examined in vitro.

 

Side Effects:

Many people who use this drug have no major adverse effects. Inform your doctor straight away if you get persistent diarrhea, abdominal or stomach pain/cramping, or blood/mucus in your stool. If you experience these symptoms, avoid using anti-diarrhea or opioid medications since they may worsen them. It is uncommon for this medicine to cause a severe allergic response.

 

Precautions:

Rabeprazole may raise the risk of bone fractures, particularly in elderly people, as well as C. difficile infection (see Side Effects section). This drug should be taken only when plainly necessary during pregnancy. It is uncertain if this medicine gets into breast milk, although related medications do. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

 

 


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31/May/2022

Diclofenac Potassium

Overview:

Diclofenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication (NSAID). This medication works by lowering pain and inflammation-causing chemicals in the body. Diclofenac is used to treat mild to moderate pain, as well as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis symptoms. Voltaren is also prescribed to treat ankylosing spondylitis. This medication is also used to treat menstrual cramps under the trade name Cataflam. A migraine headache attack is treated with diclofenac powder (Cambia). Cambia can only cure headaches that have already started. It will not prevent headaches or decrease the frequency of episodes.

 

Primary Characteristics:

 

Diclofenac is a phenyl acetic acid anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic medication. It inhibits the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 enzyme more effectively than COX-1. Other potential modes of action might include inhibiting substrate P, blocking acid-sensing ion channels, and altering interleukin-6 production. Diclofenac Potassium tablets contain benzene acetic acid. White to off-white to slightly yellowish crystalline powder that is mildly hygroscopic, soluble in methanol, soluble in alcohol, sparingly soluble in water, and faintly soluble in acetone.

 

Pharmacology:

Indication:

Diclofenac is used to treat pain and inflammation caused by a variety of illnesses, including inflammatory disorders such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis, as well as injury-related inflammation caused by surgery and physical trauma. In patients at high risk of developing NSAID-induced ulcers, it is frequently used in conjunction with misoprostol as a gastro protective medication.

 

Pharmacodynamics:

Diclofenac decreases inflammation and, as a result, nociceptive discomfort and heat.  It also raises the risk of gastrointestinal ulcer development by decreasing the synthesis of protective mucus in the stomach.

 

Contradictions:

Diclofenac potassium tablets should not be administered to patients who have had asthma, urticarial, or allergic-type responses after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, seldom fatal, anaphylactic-like responses to NSAIDs have been observed in such patients.

 

Mechanism of Action:

Diclofenac inhibits cyclooxygenase-1 and -2, the enzymes that produce prostaglandin (PG) G2. PGE2 is the major PG implicated in nociception modulation. PGE2 increases sensitivity to bradykinin via EP3 and further increases heat sensitivity via EP2. PGI2 and PGE2 are Gs’-coupled proteins that mediate vasodilation via the AC/PKA pathway. PGD2 is involved in the stimulation of endothelial cell cytokine release via its DP1 receptor. NSAIDs can successfully relieve inflammatory pain by decreasing sensitization, both peripheral and central.

 

Side Effects:

Many persons who use this drug have no major adverse effects. Nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, dizziness, or sleepiness are all possible side effects. Check your blood pressure on a regular basis and notify your doctor if it is excessive. Severe or persistent headaches, fainting, fast/pounding pulse, and indications of heart failure are all serious adverse effects.

 

Precaution:

Tell your doctor if you are allergic to diclofenac, aspirin, or other NSAIDs before using it (such as ibuprofen, naproxen, celecoxib) Inactive chemicals in this product may cause allergic reactions or other complications. While using this medication, older persons may be more likely to get stomach/intestinal bleeding, renal issues, a heart attack, or a stroke. This medicine may damage an unborn baby and create complications during normal labor and delivery. It is not advised to be used during pregnancy from 20 weeks till delivery.

Warnings:

NSAIDs raise the risk of major CV thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke. NSAIDs can cause new hypertension or aggravate underlying hypertension. In individuals with advanced renal disease, diclofenac potassium pills should not be used.

 

Vision Pharmaceuticals (PVT) Limited

Vision Pharmaceuticals are one of the best pharmaceuticals companies of the world. Different types of pharma products & drug pellets we manufacture speak volumes of the high quality, efficacy & durability. If you have any query or want to know about any product, contact us on following numbers;

+92 (051) 449 3587, +92 (51) 449 3589, +92 (321) 517 1779

 


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25/May/2022

Aspirin

 

Overview:

Prescription aspirin is used to treat the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Aspirin is also used to treat fever and to ease mild to moderate pain from headaches, menstrual periods, arthritis, toothaches, and muscular pains. Nonprescription aspirin helps to prevent ischemic strokes (strokes that occur when a blood clot stops the flow of blood to the brain) and mini-strokes. It works by preventing the formation of specific compounds that cause heat, discomfort, swelling, and blood clots.

 

Primary Characteristics:

Aspirin is synthesized chemically from salicylic acid by acetylation with acetic anhydride. Aspirin has a molecular weight of 180.16g/mol. It has no odor and is colorless to white crystals or crystalline powder.

 

Pharmacology:

Indication:

Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is used to treat a wide range of conditions. It is also used to relieve symptomatic pain during surgical and dental operations. ASA is approved for the treatment of migraine headache associated with photophobia (sensitivity to light) and phono phobia (fear of noise).

Other Indications:

In patients with adverse cardiovascular cerebral infarction, ASA is used to lower the risk of cardiovascular mortality (in combination with other therapies) and to prevent thrombosis following hip replacement surgery. It can also be used to reduce platelet aggregation, which helps to avoid transient ischemic episodes (TIA).

 

Pharmacokinetics:

Aspirin absorption is pH sensitive at the level of the small intestine. At pH 3.5 or 6.5, aspirin’s intestinal absorption is greater than the gastric absorption. Salicylic acid is renally cleared, which can be increased by raising the urinary pH.

 

Pharmacodynamics:

Effect on pain and fever: Acetylsalicylic acid is used to treat inflammation. It inhibits prostaglandin synthesis throughout the body. These are powerful, irritating compounds that have been found to produce headaches and discomfort in people when injected. Prostaglandin E1 is a well-known fever-inducing substance.

Effect on platelet aggregation: Platelet aggregation is inhibited by ASA and COX-1, which can result in the development of blood clots. The interaction of ASA with thromboxane A2 in platelets, an essential lipid for clot formation and thrombosis, causes its suppression.

 

Mechanism of Action:

Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) inhibits the formation of prostaglandins. Platelet aggregation is inhibited for roughly 7-10 days when COX-1 is inhibited. Platelet aggregation can cause clots and dangerous venous and arterial thromboembolism, which can lead to illnesses including pulmonary embolism and stroke.

 

Contradictions:

People who are allergic to ibuprofen should not take aspirin. Patients who have inborn coagulopathies such as hemophilia should avoid all salicylates. Acquired diathesis as in the setting of dengue or yellow hemorrhagic fever should avoid the use of aspirin.

 

Side Effects:

Although aspirin is quite effective against many disorders, it does have a number of negative effects. Acetylsalicylic acid should not be consumed in large quantities since it might cause hallucinations and possibly death at high doses.

It causes nausea, vomiting, bloating, muscular cramps, gastrointestinal irritation, gastritis, diarrhea, gastric ulcer, low blood pressure, sleepiness, headache, heartburn, and other side effects.

 

Warnings:

Aspirin belongs to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication class (NSAIDs). Aspirin should never be taken on an empty stomach since it might cause heartburn. Do not use ibuprofen if your doctor has instructed you to take aspirin to avoid future strokes or heart attacks.

Precautions:

People with the following conditions should use aspirin with caution and only if a doctor prescribes it:

  • Hemophilia
  • uncontrolled high blood pressure
  • asthma
  • peptic or stomach ulcers,
  • liver or renal illness are all examples of bleeding diseases.

People who are allergic to aspirin or any other NSAID, such as ibuprofen, should avoid using these medications. Pregnant or nursing women may use low-dose aspirin under the supervision of a doctor. Because not all strokes are caused by blood clots, doctors do not give aspirin during a stroke.

 

 

Vision Pharmaceuticals (PVT) Limited

Vision Pharmaceuticals are one of the best pharmaceuticals companies of the world. Different types of pharma products & drug pellets we manufacture speak volumes of the high quality, efficacy & durability. If you have any query or want to know about any product, contact us on following numbers;

+92 (051) 449 3587, +92 (51) 449 3589, +92 (321) 517 1779

 


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29/Apr/2022

Misoprostol

Overview:

Misoprostol is used to prevent ulcers in people who are using certain arthritis or pain medications that might induce ulcers, such as aspirin. It preserves the lining of the stomach and reduces stomach acid secretion. It is a prescription drug used to reduce the risk of NSAID (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin)–induced gastric ulcers in patients at high risk of complications from gastric ulcers, such as the elderly and patients with concomitant debilitating disease, as well as patients at high risk of developing gastric ulceration, such as those who have had a previous ulcer.

Primary Characteristics:

This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as prostaglandins and related compounds. These are unsaturated carboxylic acids consisting of a 20 carbon skeleton that also contains a five-member ring, and are based upon the fatty acid arachidonic acid.

 

Pharmacology:

Misoprostol is a prostaglandin E1 analogue that is used to lower the risk of stomach ulcers caused by NSAIDs.

Pharmacodynamics:

Misoprostol is a prostaglandin E1 analogue that reduces stomach acid release from parietal cells, lowering the risk of NSAID-induced gastric ulcers.   Misoprostol is also used to treat miscarriages and for first-trimester abortions, either alone or in combination with mifepristone.   An oral dose of misoprostol has an onset of action of 8 minutes and a duration of action of approximately 2 hours, a sublingual dose of 11 minutes and a duration of action of approximately 3 hours, a vaginal dose of 20 minutes and a duration of action of approximately 4 hours, and a rectal dose of 100 minutes and a duration of action of approximately 4 hours.

Mechanism of Action:

Misoprostol is a prostaglandin E1 analogue that reduces gastric acid output by stimulating prostaglandin E1 receptors on parietal cells in the stomach. Mucus and bicarbonate secretion rise, as does mucosal bilayer thickness, allowing the mucosa to create new cells.

Misoprostol attaches to smooth muscle cells in the uterine lining, causing contractions to become stronger and more frequent while also degrading collagen and lowering cervical tone.

Contradictions:
Misoprostol includes:
  • pelvic infection or sepsis
  • hemodynamic instability or shock
  • allergy to misoprostol known bleeding disorder
  • concurrent anticoagulant therapy
  • confirmed or suspected ectopic or molar pregnancy

 

Side Effects:

Misoprostol causes diarrhea, which normally starts two weeks after you start taking it. Frequent diarrhea can cause a significant loss of water and nutrients in your body. Nausea or stomach pains are other possible side effects. If you see any of these significant indicators of dehydration or mineral imbalance, contact your doctor straight once. Although a severe allergic reaction to this medicine is unusual, get medical help right once if one does develop.

Precautions:

Inactive chemicals in misoprostol might cause allergic responses or other complications. Consumption of alcohol and smoke on a regular basis may raise your risk of stomach bleeding. An incomplete abortion is rare if you use this drug with mifepristone to stop a pregnancy. Because of the risk of injury to an unborn child, this medicine should not be taken to prevent stomach ulcers during pregnancy (see also Warnings).

Warnings:

Misoprostol can result in birth abnormalities, early delivery, uterine rupture, miscarriage, or incomplete miscarriage, as well as potentially severe uterine hemorrhage. If you’re pregnant, don’t use misoprostol. You must have a negative pregnancy test before beginning this therapy if you are able to become pregnant. During therapy, you’ll also need to take effective birth control to avoid getting pregnant.

 

Vision Pharmaceuticals (PVT) Limited

Vision Pharmaceuticals are one of the best pharmaceuticals companies of the world. Different types of pharma products & drug pellets we manufacture speak volumes of the high quality, efficacy & durability. If you have any query or want to know about any product, contact us on following numbers;

+92 (051) 449 3587, +92 (51) 449 3589, +92 (321) 517 1779

 

 

 

 

 


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29/Apr/2022

Pantoprazole sodium sterile

Overview:

Pantoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) that is used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and to protect the stomach. It’s also used in triple antibiotic regimens for the treatment of H. pylori infections, with medicines including amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and metronidazole. Long-term usage of PPIs has been linked to an increased risk of bacterial infections and decreased absorption of minerals including iron and B12.

 

Primary Characteristics:

A substituted sodium 5-(difluoromethoxy)-2-[[(3,4-dimethoxy-2-pyridinyl) methyl] sulfonyl] 1H-benzimidazole is the active component in PROTONIX® I.V. (pantoprazole sodium) for Injection. With a molecular weight of 405.4, its empirical formula is C16H14F2N3NaO4S. The rate of chemical breakdown in aqueous solution is pH-dependent and rises as pH decreases.

 

Pharmacology:

Indication:

Pantoprazole injection is approved for the short-term (7-10 day) treatment of individuals with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with a history of erosive esophagitis. It is also used to treat pathological hyper secretory diseases such as Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome and other neoplastic illnesses. An extra 8-week course of therapy may be considered for adult patients who have not healed after 8 weeks of treatment.

Pharmacodynamics:

Pantoprazole has been demonstrated to be more successful than histamine-2 receptor antagonists at reducing acid reflux symptoms, healing esophageal inflammation, and improving patient quality of life (H2 blockers). This medication has an outstanding safety record and a low rate of drug interactions. It is safe to use in a variety of high-risk patient populations, including the elderly and those with renal failure or mild hepatic impairment.

 

Mechanism of Action:

The production of hydrochloric acid (HCl) into the gastric lumen is primarily controlled by the proton pump’s H (+)/K (+)-ATPase, which is abundantly produced by stomach parietal cells. ATPase is an enzyme that enables hydrogen and potassium exchange inside the cell, resulting in potassium extrusion and the creation of HCl (gastric acid). Pantoprazole and other proton pump inhibitors are substituted Benz imidazole derivatives, which accumulate in the acidic region of a parietal cell before being converted to active sulfonamide derivatives.

 

Side Effects:

It is possible that you will get headaches or diarrhea. Redness, discomfort, or swelling at the injection site are also possible. Inform your doctor immediately away if you get persistent diarrhea, abdominal or stomach pain/cramping, fever, or blood/mucus in your stool. It is unusual to have a severe adverse response to this medication.

Precautions:

Before using pantoprazole, notify your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it or any other medicines. This product may contain inactive chemicals that might cause allergic reactions or other issues. Consult your physician about strategies to prevent bone loss/fracture, such as taking calcium (such as calcium citrate) and vitamin D supplements.

Warnings:

Pantoprazole oral pill may produce an allergic response, which can lead to renal failure. The medication may raise a person’s risk of osteoporosis, a disorder in which bones grow brittle. It can reduce the quantity of magnesium in your body in persons who have low blood magnesium levels (hypomagnesemia). It can also generate false findings in neuroendocrine tumor tests.

For People with Osteoporosis:  Pantoprazole can raise a person’s risk of osteoporosis, a disorder in which bones become brittle. Inform your doctor if you have a family history of osteoporosis.

For people with low blood magnesium (hypo magnesium): Pantoprazole might cause a drop in magnesium levels in your body. If you have a history of hypomagnesemia, tell your doctor.

For People being tested for Neuroendocrine tumors: Pantoprazole can give false positives in these tests. As a result, your doctor will ask you to cease taking this medication at least 14 days before the testing. They may also request that you repeat the testing if necessary.

 

Vision Pharmaceuticals (PVT) Limited

Vision Pharmaceuticals are one of the best pharmaceuticals companies of the world. Different types of pharma products & drug pellets we manufacture speak volumes of the high quality, efficacy & durability. If you have any query or want to know about any product, contact us on following numbers;

+92 (051) 449 3587, +92 (51) 449 3589, +92 (321) 517 1779

 

 


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29/Apr/2022

Duloxetine Hydrochloride

Overview:

Duloxetine is an antidepressant with a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SSNRI). Duloxetine changes brain chemicals that may be out of balance in persons who suffer from depression. It’s is a medication used to treat serious depression in adults. It is used to treat generalized anxiety disorder in adults and children over the age of seven. It’s also used to treat nerve pain caused by diabetes (diabetic neuropathy) as well as persistent muscular or joint pain in adults (such as low back pain and osteoarthritis pain).

 

Primary Characteristics:

Duloxetine hydrochloride is a white to slightly brownish white solid that is mildly soluble in water. Inactive components include FD&C Blue No. 2, gelatin, hypromellose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate, sodium lauryl sulphate, sucrose, sugar spheres, talc, titanium dioxide, and triethyl citrate. Iron oxide yellow is also included in the 20 mg and 60 mg capsules.

 

Pharmacology:
Indication:

Recommended for:

1) Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD).

2) Generalized Anxiety Disorder Management

3) Diabetic peripheral neuropathy management.

4) Fibromyalgia management.

5) Chronic musculoskeletal pain management

6) Knee osteoarthritis management in adults.

7) Adults’ persistent lower back pain management.

8) Adult female stress urinary incontinence management.

Off-label uses include:

1) Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy management.

2) Management of stress urine incontinence in adult males following prostatectomy till full recovery.

 

Mechanism of Action:

The CNS effects of duloxetine mediate its action on the external urinary sphincter. Enhanced serotonin and norepinephrine concentrations in Onus’s nucleus result in increased adrenergic receptor activation. These receptors’ activity contributes to increased excitability of the pudendal motor neuron. The hypertensive impact of duloxetine is connected to its intended pharmacological action. Increased norepinephrine availability activates adrenergic receptors on the vascular endothelium. Because the Gq coupled receptor causes calcium release, vasoconstriction occurs because the activity of α1 receptors predominates.

 

Side Effects:

Inform your doctor right away if you notice any new or unexpected changes in your mood or behavior, such as new or worse sadness or anxiety. If you are impulsive, irritable, agitated, angry, aggressive, restless, more active or chatty, or have suicidal or self-harming ideas, contact your doctor. If you have: pounding heartbeats or fluttering in your chest; a light-headed feeling as if you’re about to pass out; easy bruising, unusual bleeding; visual changes; or painful urination.

Liver Problems include right-sided upper stomach discomfort, itching, dark urine, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes).

Low blood sodium can cause headaches, disorientation, difficulty with thinking or memory, weakness, and a shaky sensation.

Manic episodes are characterized by racing thoughts, increased activity, decreased need for sleep, risk-taking behavior, and agitation or talkativeness.

Seek medical attention right away if you have symptoms of serotonin syndrome, such as: agitation, hallucinations, fever, sweating, fast heart rate, muscle stiffness, twitching, loss of coordination, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.

 

Precautions:

Inactive components in duloxetine may cause allergic reactions or other complications. This medication may cause dizziness or drowsiness. If you use marijuana, consult your doctor. If you have diabetes, this medication may have an effect on your blood sugar. Older people are more likely to develop a sort of salt imbalance (hyponatremia), particularly if they use “water pills” (diuretics). Falls might be exacerbated by dizziness, lightheadedness, or loss of coordination. This medicine may potentially be harmful to an unborn child.

 

Warning:

Suicidal ideation is common in those suffering from depression or mental illness. When first taking a depression medication, some young individuals may experience heightened suicide thoughts. Do not discontinue duloxetine without first consulting your doctor. It is possible that a hazardous medication interaction will occur.

 

Vision Pharmaceuticals (PVT) Limited

Vision Pharmaceuticals are one of the best pharmaceuticals companies of the world. Different types of pharma products & drug pellets we manufacture speak volumes of the high quality, efficacy & durability. If you have any query or want to know about any product, contact us on following numbers;

+92 (051) 449 3587, +92 (51) 449 3589, +92 (321) 517 1779

 


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29/Apr/2022

Lansoprazole Sodium Sterile

Overview:

Lansoprazole is a substituted Benz imidazole that blocks gastric acid production. This medication is permitted for the short-term treatment of erosive reflux erosive esophagitis, active gastric ulcers, active duodenal ulcers, and NSAID-induced gastric ulcers. It works by inhibiting the membrane enzyme H+/K+ ATPase in gastric parietal cells. In individuals with peptic ulcer disease, a daily dose of 30 mg alleviated epigastric pain faster than omeprazole 20 mg daily. Lansoprazole is a prescription drug. It’s available as a delayed-release oral capsule and orally disintegrating tablet. It reduces the amount of acid produced in your stomach by blocking the proton pump in the cells of your stomach. It can be used to treat gastric ulcers, duodenal ulcer and heartburn.

 

Primary Characteristics:

Lansoprazole is an odorless white to brownish-white crystalline powder that melts around 166°C when decomposed. With lowering pH, the rate of breakdown of the chemical in aqueous solution rises. PREVACID I.V. for Injection comprises 30 mg lansoprazole, 60 mg mannitol, 10 mg melamine, and 3.45 mg sodium hydroxide as the active component. It comes as a sterile, lyophilized powder for intravenous administration.

 

Pharmacology:

Lansoprazole reduces stomach acid secretion by inhibiting H+, K+-ATPase, an enzyme in parietal cells that catalysis the final step in the acid secretion process.   Lansoprazole can be taken at any time of day and will inhibit both daytime and nocturnal acid secretion. As a result, lansoprazole is efficient at healing duodenal ulcers, reducing ulcer-related discomfort, and alleviating heartburn symptoms.  Lansoprazole also inhibits pepsin secretion, making it an effective treatment for hyper secretory disorders such Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.

 

Mechanism of Action:

As a PPI, lansoprazole is a prodrug that must be activated by protonation in an acidic environment.  Lansoprazole may react with cysteine residues on parietal H+, K+-ATPase, notably Cys813 and Cys321, to form persistent disulfides once protonated. Because of their propensity to bind covalently to their targets, 35 PPIs can offer long-term suppression of acid secretion.

 

Contradiction:  

PREVACID I.V. (lansoprazole for injection) for Injection is contraindicated in patients with known severe hypersensitivity to any component of the formulation.

 

Absorption:

Lansoprazole has an oral bioavailability of 80-90 percent and a peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of around 1.7 hours after oral administration.  Because food affects lansoprazole absorption (both Cmax and AUC are lowered by 50-70%), patients should be told to take lansoprazole before meals.

 

Side Effects:

The majority of people who use this medicine do not have any substantial adverse effects. Diarrhea, abdominal pain, and headache are all possible side effects. If you have persistent diarrhea, abdomen or stomach pain/cramping, fever, or blood/mucus in your stool, call your doctor immediately once. Anti-diarrhea and opioid medications should be avoided since they may exacerbate symptoms.

 

Precaution:

Some symptoms might be warning indications of a more serious illness. Proton pump inhibitors (such as lansoprazole) might make you more susceptible to bone fractures. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for advice on how to avoid bone loss and fractures. The drug’s adverse effects, including bone loss and fractures, may be more severe in elderly adults.

 

Warnings:

Bone fracture warning: People who take many doses of this medicine each day for a year or longer may be at risk for bone fractures. Breaks in your hip, wrist, or spine are more likely to occur. You must take this medication exactly as directed by your doctor.

Severe Diarrhea warning: A drug called Clostridium difficile (C. diff) can cause diarrhea, stomach pain and fever that won’t go away.

Kidney damage warning: If you suffer bleeding or changes in urine while being treated for meningitis, menopause, or post-exfoliating colorectal cancer, call your doctor.

 

Vision Pharmaceuticals (PVT) Limited

Vision Pharmaceuticals are one of the best pharmaceuticals companies of the world. Different types of pharma products & drug pellets we manufacture speak volumes of the high quality, efficacy & durability. If you have any query or want to know about any product, contact us on following numbers;

+92 (051) 449 3587, +92 (51) 449 3589, +92 (321) 517 1779

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Venlafaxine.jpg
29/Apr/2022

Venlafaxine

Overview:

Venlafaxine (Effexor) is an antidepressant that belongs to the SNRI (serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) drug family. It works by inhibiting the transporters that are involved in the reuptake of the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine. It is recommended as a first-line therapy choice for generalized anxiety, social anxiety, panic disorder, major depressive disorder (MDD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder in Canadian professional practice standards as of 2014(OCD). Off-label uses include migraine headache prevention and the alleviation of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause.

Primary Characteristics:

O-desmethylvenlafaxine ODV has antidepressant properties that are comparable to venlafaxine. Cytochrome P450 (CYP2D6), CYP3A4, 2C19, and 2C9 catalyze the formation of ODV.

Contradictions:

Venlafaxine should not be taken by anyone who is hypersensitive to it or allergic to the inactive ingredients, which include gelatin, cellulose, ethyl cellulose, iron oxide, titanium dioxide, and hypromellose. It should not be taken with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) since it can create serotonin syndrome, which can be fatal.

 

Pharmacology:
Indication:

Major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (social phobia), and panic disorder with or without phobias are all treated with venlafaxine. Venlafaxine is also used off-label for migraine headache prevention, vasomotor symptoms related with menopause reduction, and neuropathic pain treatment (although there is only limited evidence of benefit for this illness). It’s also regarded as a second-line treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

 

Mechanism of Action:

Venlafaxine’s precise mechanism of action is uncertain; however, it directly correlates to the stimulatory effects of neurotransmitter activity in the CNS. Venlafaxine and its active metabolite, O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV), inhibit serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake with a potency that is stronger for the 5-HT reuptake process than for the NE reuptake process. Both venlafaxine and its metabolite, ODV, have mild inhibitory effects on dopamine reuptake, but they are not active at histaminergic, muscarinic, or alpha (1)-adrenergic receptor, unlike tricyclics and SSRIs.

 

Side Effects:

If you get a skin rash or hives, difficulty breathing, or swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat, seek emergency medical attention right away.

Mood or behavior changes, anxiety, panic attacks, difficulties sleeping, or if you feel impulsive, impatient, agitated, hostile, aggressive, restless, hyperactive (mentally or physically), more depressed, or have thoughts about suicide or harming yourself should all be reported to your doctor.

If you have any of the following symptoms, call your doctor right once.

  • Halos surrounding lights, impaired vision, ocular discomfort or redness;
  • Cough, chest tightness, and breathing difficulties;
  • a convulsion (seizures);
  • nosebleeds, bleeding gums, irregular vaginal bleeding, or any bleeding that won’t stop;
  • low blood sodium – headaches, confusion, problems thinking or memorizing, fatigue, unsteadiness;
  • Severe nervous system reaction: stiff (rigid) muscles, high fever, sweating, anxiety, fast or uneven heartbeats, tremors, and the sense of passing out.

If you suffer signs of serotonin syndrome including agitation, hallucinations, fever, sweating, shivering, high heart rate, muscle stiffness, twitching, loss of coordination, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea, seek medical help right away.

 

Warnings:

Venlafaxine caused a limited percentage of adolescents, teens, and young adults to become suicidal. Suicide may occur at any time throughout your therapy, including when your dose is increased or lowered. If you encounter any of the symptoms listed below, contact your doctor straight away. Consult your doctor about the risks and advantages of using venlafaxine or other medicines to treat your problem. Suicide risk is considerably increased if you suffer from depression or any mental disease. If you or someone in your family suffers from bipolar disorder or mania, you’re at a higher risk.

Precautions:

Inactive chemicals in venlafaxine can induce allergic reactions or other complications. This medication may cause dizziness, drowsiness, or blurred vision. While taking this medication, do not drive, operate machinery, or do anything else that requires alertness or clear vision.

 

Vision Pharmaceuticals (PVT) Limited

Vision Pharmaceuticals are one of the best pharmaceuticals companies of the world. Different types of pharma products & drug pellets we manufacture speak volumes of the high quality, efficacy & durability. If you have any query or want to know about any product, contact us on following numbers;

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ESodiumS.jpg
29/Apr/2022

Esomeprazole Sodium Sterile

Overview:

Esomeprazole, sold under the brand name Nexium, is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) medication used for the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and for gastric protection. It’s also used in quadruple regimens to treat H. pylori infections alongside antibiotics like Amoxicillin, Clarithromycin, and Metronidazole. Its effectiveness is comparable to that of other PPI medications like Omeprazole and Pantoprazole.

Primary Characteristics:

In vitro, esomeprazole and [DB00338] both inhibit acid secretion to a similar extent, with no significant differences between the two compounds. Long-term use of PPIs like this has been linked to side effects such as increased susceptibility to bacterial infections and decreased absorption of micronutrients like iron and B12.

Pharmacology:
Indication:

Esomeprazole  used to treat acid reflux disorders such as erosive esophagitis healing and maintenance, symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcer disease, H. pylori eradication, gastrointestinal bleed prevention with NSAID use, and long-term treatment of pathological hyper secretory conditions such as Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome.

Mechanism of Action:

Esomeprazole suppresses stomach acid by covalently binding to sulfhydryl groups of cysteine on the (H+, K+)-ATPase enzyme at the secretory surface of gastric parietal cells, preventing the final step in gastric acid production. Regardless of the stimulus, this effect inhibits both basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion. Because esomeprazole’s binding to the (H+, K+)-ATPase enzyme  irreversible and a new enzyme must expressed to resume acid secretion, the anti-allergic effect of esomeprazole lasts longer than 24 hours.

Pharmacodynamics:

The s-isomer of Omeprazole, which is a race mate of the S- and R-enantiomers, is Esomeprazole. It prevents acid secretion into the gastric lumen by inhibiting ATPase at the gastric parietal cell’s secretory surface. This effect is dose-dependent, and regardless of the stimulus, it inhibits both basal and stimulated acid secretion. PPI use over time linked to side effects such as increased susceptibility to bacterial infections and decreased absorption of micronutrients like iron and B12.

Side Effects:

Blisters, peeling, or loosening of the skin are all possible side effects of this medication. You may not experience all of these side effects such as Fast heartbeat, dizziness, Darkened Urine, drowsiness, loss of appetite, puffiness or swelling of the eyelids or around the eyes, face, lips, or tongue etc., but if you do, you should seek medical help. If any of the following side effects persist or become bothersome, speak with your doctor. Unpleasant, unusual, or bad (after). In the stomach or bowels, there is too much air or gas. Hair loss or thinning  a condition in which the hair  lost or thinned.

Precautions:

To treat ulcers caused by H. pylori infection, this medicine  sometimes combined with amoxicillin (Amoxil) and clarithromycin (Biaxin). After using this medicine, consult your doctor if you experience a change in urination frequency or amount, fever, joint pain, loss of appetite, nausea, skin rash, swelling of the body, feet, or ankles, unusual tiredness or weakness, or weight gain. This medication may increase your risk of hip, wrist, and spine fractures. This medicine may cause hypomagnesemia (low magnesium in the blood). This is more likely if you are over 50, take high doses, or take it for a year or more. If you have severe bone pain or swelling, call your doctor right away.

 

Vision Pharmaceuticals (PVT) Limited

Vision Pharmaceuticals are one of the best pharmaceuticals companies of the world. Different types of pharma products & drug pellets we manufacture speak volumes of the high quality, efficacy & durability. If you have any query or want to know about any product, contact us on following numbers.

+92 (051) 449 3587, +92 (51) 449 3589, +92 (321) 517 1779

 

 

 

 

 

 


Orlistat-Blogpost.jpg
29/Apr/2022

Orlistat

Overview:

Orlistat is an anti-obesity medication. It acts as a lipase inhibitor, preventing fat absorption from the human diet and thereby lowering caloric intake. Orlistat’s ability to help people lose weight is undeniable yet limited. Orlistat also appears to prevent type 2 diabetes by lowering blood pressure. Obesity is becoming more common over the world. Obesity-related issues cause significant personal and financial hardship by lowering quality of life and raising healthcare costs. Diet and exercise alone are insufficient for some people to maintain weight loss, and pharmaceutical or surgical intervention is required.

 

Primary Characteristics:

This chemical belongs to the leucine and derivatives class of organic chemicals. These are compounds containing leucine or a derivative thereof obtained by reacting leucine with an amino or carboxyl group, or by replacing any hydrogen in glycine with a heteroatom.

 

Pharmacology:

Orlistat inhibits the absorption of dietary fats by blocking lipase enzymes, which assists with weight loss and maintenance.

 

Pharmacokinetics:           
  • Absorption: Orlistat is absorbed mostly through its local impact in the gut, with very little systemic exposure.
  • Distribution: The vast bulk of the medication (greater than 99 percent) is bound to plasma proteins (lipoproteins and albumin are the major binding proteins).
  • Metabolism: Orlistat metabolism takes place largely within the gut wall.
  • Elimination: 95-97 percent of the drug is not absorbed and is eliminated in the stool.

 

 

Contraindications:

Contraindications to orlistat include the following conditions:

  • Hypersensitivity to orlistat or its constituents
  • Chronic malabsorption
  • Cholestasis
  • Anorexia and bulimia
  • Pregnancy
  • Severe renal impairment
Mechanism of Action:

Orlistat works by blocking lipases, which are enzymes in the intestine that break down lipids. Triglycerides from the diet are not hydrolyzed into absorbable free fatty acids when lipase activity is inhibited, and instead are excreted unchanged. Orlistat prevents approximately 30% of dietary fat from being absorbed when taken at the standard prescription dose of 120 mg three times daily, before meals. Higher doses have the same effect as lower doses. The parasite Trypanosoma brucei may also be affected by orlistat. Orlistat prevents approximately 30% of dietary fat from being absorbed when taken in the standard prescription dose of 120 mg three times daily, before meals.  Higher doses have the same effect as lower doses.

Side Effects:

Changes in gastrointestinal function are frequently caused by unabsorbed fat. Fatty/oily stool, intestinal gas with discharge, excessive bowel motions, or poor bowel control are all possible symptoms. This medicine seldom causes a severe allergic reaction. If any of these rare but serious adverse effects occur, stop taking this medication and contact your doctor straight once.

If you experience symptoms of liver illness (such as persistent nausea/vomiting, severe stomach/abdominal pain, dark urine, yellowing eyes/skin), or kidney stones (such as back discomfort, pain while urinating, pink/bloody urine), you should stop using this drug. Although a severe allergic reaction to this medication is uncommon, it should be treated seriously. Contact your doctor or pharmacist if you experience any other negative effects. This isn’t an exhaustive list of potential adverse effects.

Precautions:

Inactive chemicals in Orlistat can induce allergic responses and other complications. This drug should not be taken when pregnant. If you have diabetes, losing weight may help you control your blood sugar levels. A pregnant woman’s weight loss has no possible benefits and may harm her unborn child.

Warnings:

Orlistat is merely one component of a comprehensive treatment plan that includes food, exercise, and weight management. Keep a close eye on your nutrition, medicine, and exercise routines. Avoid eating a high-fat diet. When you take orlistat with a high-fat meal, you run the chance of having unpleasant stomach or intestine side effects. Your daily fat, protein, and carbohydrate intake should be evenly distributed across all of your meals.

 

Vision Pharmaceuticals (PVT) Limited

Vision Pharmaceuticals are one of the best pharmaceuticals companies of the world. Different types of pharma products & drug pellets we manufacture speak volumes of the high quality, efficacy & durability. If you have any query or want to know about any product, contact us on following numbers;

+92 (051) 449 3587, +92 (51) 449 3589, +92 (321) 517 1779






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