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29/Jul/2021

Azithromycin

The antimicrobial agents or antibiotics develops during the last 60 years are among the most dramatic examples of the advances of science. The remarkably powerful and specific activity of antimicrobial drug is due to their selectivity for highly specific targets that are either unique to micro-organism or much more important in them than in humans. Azithromycin belongs to a macrolide antibiotic. Azithromycin is a 15-atom lactone macrolide ring compound. Azithromycin is a semisynthetic derivative of Erythromycin obtained by the addition of methylated nitrogen into the lactone ring of Erythromycin. Azithromycin is effective against gram positive bacteria. Antibiotics require constant drug level in body for therapeutic effect. This is achieved by taking the medication at regular interval of time throughout the day and night as prescribed. Azithromycin is important to take the drug for the full time period as prescribed. If you discontinue the therapy, it may result in ineffective treatment.

Primary Characteristics

It is of Semi Synthetic origin and belongs to Azalide. It belongs to Antibacterial (Protein synthesis inhibitor) pharmacological group on the basis of mechanism of action and also classified in Antibiotics pharmacological group. The Molecular Weight of Azithromycin is 785.00.

Indications

Azithromycin is primarily indicated in conditions like Cervicitits, Lower respiratory tract infections, Multiple myeloma, Otitis media, Reversal of excessive bradycardia, Rtis, otitis media, Skin and soft tissue infections, Soft tissue and skin infections, Status epilepticus (unlicensed use), Upper respiratory tract infections, Urethritis.

 

Pharmacokinetics

Oral absorption of Azithromycin is found to be 34% ±19. Volume of distribution is found to be 31.1 l/kg and plasma proteins binding is 51%. Renal Excretion accounts for < 10% unchanged. Also excreted in bile and plasma half life is 68%.

 

Contraindications

Azithromycin is contraindicated in conditions like Hepatic impairment, Hypersensitivity.

 

Drug Interactions

Azithromycin is known to interact with other drugs, the details of drug interactions is as follows:

Severity

Triazolam, Aluminium Hydroxide and Oxide, Cyclosporin,  Terfenadine, Theophylline, Ergotamine (Tartrate), Ibrutinib

Moderate

Astemizole, Digoxin.

These interactions are sometimes beneficial and sometimes may pose threats to life. Always consult your physician for the change of dose regimen or an alternative drug of choice that may strictly be required.

 

Side Effects

The severe or irreversible adverse effects of Azithromycin, which give rise to further complications include Maculopapular rash, Cholestasis, Pseudomembranous colitis, Jaundice.

Azithromycin produces potentially life-threatening effects which include Anaphylaxis, Angioneurotic edema. which are responsible for the discontinuation of Azithromycin therapy.

The signs and symptoms that are produced after the acute over dosage of Azithromycin include severe nausea, Severe diarrhoea, Severe vomiting, Hearing loss.

The symptomatic adverse reactions produced by Azithromycin are more or less tolerable and if they become severe, they can be treated symptomatically, these include Flatulence, Dizziness, Vertigo, Headache, Fatigue, Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhoea, Palpitation, Abdominal pain, Rashes, Photosensitivity, Deafness, GI disturbance.

 

High Risk Groups

Drug should not be given to Pregnant Mothers, patients suffering from Kidney dysfunction, patients suffering from Liver Malfunction, and Neonates.

If prescribing authority justifies the benefits of the drug against the possible damages he/she should re-evaluate them and consult the reference material and previous +

studies.

 

Warning / Precautions

Azithromycin should be used with caution in patients with illness or any allergy, especially allergies to drugs, liver disease, jaundice, history of colitis or stomach problems or kidney disease. This drug should be used only if clearly needed during pregnancy or lactation.

 

Storage Conditions

Tab, Caps, Oral Suspension

Store Below 40°C. Protect from Sunlight and Moisture.

 

Interference in Pathology

The use of Azithromycin may show false elevated serum aspartate.

 






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